2014-01-12

Seerah- notes of 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th lessons- teacher Yumna

In The Name Of Allah
Dated, December 13, 2013
                                              Sirrat of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)
                                                                   
Main Points:
1-The First Muslims


The propagation of Islam began to increase in Makkah. It took effect in those broad-minded individuals, who quickly abandoned their former Jahiliyah and secretly embraced the new faith. The ayat  (verses) of the Quran descended on the hearts of those who accepted the seeds of faith as rain descends on fertile soil:
"When We send down water on it, it thrills and swells and put forth every single kind [of growth]"  (Quran 22:5)
It was natural that the prophet (PBUH) should present Islam first to those who were closest to him among his household and friends. These people had never had any doubts about the greatness of Muhammad (PBUH) or his truthfulness,  so it is no wonder , therefore, that they were the first to support and follow him.
After that momentous day in the month of Ramadan, Revelation came again and again to the Prophet (pbuh). He understood now what he had to do and prepared himself for what was to come. Only a strong and brave man, helped by Allah, can be a true prophet because people often refuse to listen to Allah’s message. Khadijah was the first to believe the Prophet
(pbuh) and accept as true what he brought from Allah. Through her, Allah made things easier for the Prophet (pbuh). Khadijah strengthened him, helped him spread his message, and stood up to the people who were against him.

Then Revelation ceased for a time. The Prophet (pbuh) was upset and unhappy, thinking that Allah had left him, or that he might have angered
Allah in some way so that Allah no longer thought him worthy of His message. However, the Archangel Gabriel came back to him and brought this surah, or chapter, of the Qur’an:

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
"By the morning hours, And by the night when it is stillest, Thy Lord hath neither forsaken thee nor doth He hate thee, And verily the Last will be better for thee than the First. And verily thy Lord will give unto thee so that thou wilt be content. Did He not find thee an orphan and protect thee? Did He not find thee wandering and guide thee? Did He not find thee destitute and enrich thee? Therefore the orphan oppress not,
Therefore the beggar drive not away, And as for thy Lord’s blessing, declare it.." (Qur’an: 93.1-11)

The Prophet (pbuh) began to speak secretly of Allah’s message to those Who were close to him and whom he could trust. At that time
Mecca was going through hard times. There was very little food to be had. Abu Talib, the Prophet’s uncle, who had taken care of him after his grandfather’s death, was finding it very difficult to feed his large family.
The Prophet (pbuh) said that he and another uncle, al-’Abbas, who was a rich man, would each bring up one of Abu Talib’s children in order to help him. The Prophet (pbuh) took .Ali and his uncle took Ja.far.
One day, when the Prophet (pbuh) was outside the city, the Archangel
Gabriel appeared to him. The Archangel kicked the side of a hill and a spring of water began to flow out. He then began to wash himself in the running water to show the Prophet (pbuh) the ritual ablution to be made before prayer. Then the Archangel showed him all the positions   of Muslim prayer-the various movements and things to be said with each movement. The Prophet (pbuh) returned home and taught all these things first to Khadijah and then to his followers. Since then Muslims have continued to purify themselves before prayer by performing the ritual ablution and have followed the same movements and prayers first performed by the Prophet (pbuh). To begin with, though, only the Prophet
(pbuh) and his wife knew of these things. Then one day .Ali entered the room and found the Prophet (pbuh) and Khadijah praying. He was puzzled and asked what they were doing. The Prophet (pbuh) explained to him that they were praising Allah and giving thanks to Him. That night
’Ali stayed up thinking about all that the Prophet (pbuh) had said; he had
great admiration and respect for his cousin. Finally he came to a decision
and the next day he went to the Prophet (pbuh) and told him that he
wanted to follow him. Thus Khadijah was the first woman to embrace
Islam, the teachings which the Prophet (pbuh) brought from Allah, and
Ali was the first young man. Shortly after they were joined by Zayd ibn
Harithah, a slave, freed and adopted by the Prophet (pbuh).
The Prophet (pbuh) began to leave Mecca with ’An in order to pray.
One day Abu Talib happened to pass by and when he saw them he
stopped and asked them what they were doing. The Prophet (pbuh) told
him that they were praying and following the same religion as Abraham.
He explained that, like Abraham, he had been ordered to guide the people
to Allah’s truth. Abu Talib looked at his son, ’Ali, and said: ’Muhammad
(pbuh) would never make you do anything that was wrong. Go with him.
But I cannot leave the religion I now follow and which was followed
by my father.’ Then he turned to the Prophet (pbuh), saying, ’Even so, I
promise you, Muhammad (pbuh), that no one will hurt you as long as I
am alive.’ And with that Abu Talib went on his way. At about this time
the news of Muhammad (pbuh) being the Prophet reached an honest,
wise, and respected merchant of Mecca called Abu Bakr. He knew
Muhammad (pbuh) well and believed he could never lie, so he went to
find out for himself if the story were true. The Prophet (pbuh) told him
that he had indeed been sent by Allah to teach everyone to worship the
one true Allah. On hearing this from the Prophet’s own lips Abu Bakr
knew it to be the truth and became a believer instantly. Later the Prophet
(pbuh) was reported to have said that everyone he ever invited to accept
Islam showed signs of disbelief and doubt, except Abu Bakr; when he
was told of it he did not hold back or hesitate. Because of his wisdom,
honesty, and kindness people had always turned to Abu Bakr for advice.
He was, therefore, a man of some influence and through him many people
came to Islam. Among these was Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas as, the uncle of
Aminah, the Prophet’s mother. The night before Abu Bakr came to visit
him and tell him about Islam, Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas dreamt that he was walking in darkness. As he walked he saw the moon and when he looked
at it he saw ’Ali, Abu Bakr, and Zayd, the Prophet’s freed slave,
beckoning to him to come and join them. When Abu Bakr told him about
the Prophet’s religion, he understood the meaning of his dream and went
at once to the Prophet (pbuh) and declared himself a Muslim. He
understood that to be a Muslim means to submit oneself to Allah’s Will
and to serve only Him. Another person brought to Islam by Abu Bakr was
Bilal. One night Abu Bakr went to the house of Umayyah ibn Khalaf, one
of the most important men of Quraysh. Umayyah was out and Abu Bakr
found only Umayyah’s slave, Bilal, at home. Abu Bakr talked to the slave
about Islam and before he left, Bilal, too, had become a Muslim. The
number of people following the Prophet (pbuh) began to grow.
Sometimes they would all go out of the city to the mountains around
Mecca to hear him recite the Qur’an and to be taught by him. This was all
done very secretly and only a very few people knew about Islam in those
early days


In The Name Of Allah
Dated, December 27, 2013
                                              Sirrat of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

Main Points:
1-The announcement of the call
2-The beginning of the prophet's troubles

Three years passed and one day the Archangel Gabriel came to the
Prophet (pbuh) and ordered him to start preaching openly to everyone. So
the Prophet (pbuh) told the people of Mecca that he had something very
important to tell them.
Ibn Abbas said that when the verse :" And warn your tribe of the close relatives"(Qur'an 26:214),was revealed the prophet (PBUH) climbed the hill of Safa  and started shouting:" O Banu Fihr,O Banu Adi," calling all the clans of Quraish to assemble, and those who couldn't come out sent a messenger to see what had happened.
When they all had assembled the prophet (PBUH) said:
"What would you say if I told you that there was an army of horsemen in the valley wanting to attack you,would you believe me?"
They said:"We have never heard you tell a lie."
He said:" Well, I am warning you of terrible punishment [Because of their disbelieving in the oneness of God]"
Abu Lahab then shouted:"May you be in misery all day long! Is this what you called us for? "
Then the crowd dispersed and the Prophet (pbuh) was left alone. A
few days later the Prophet (pbuh) tried again. A feast was prepared in his
house for all of his uncles. After the meal he spoke to them and said, ’O
sons of ’Abd al-Muttalib! I know of no Arab who has come to his people
with a better message than mine. I have brought you the best news for
this life and the next. Allah has ordered me to call you to Him. So which
of you will help me?’ All the men kept silent. Then ’Ali, his cousin,
jumped up and said: ’O Prophet of Allah! I will help you.’ Then the men
all got up and left, laughing as they went because only one young boy had
agreed to help the Prophet (pbuh).

His message ignored by most of the people and his uncles, the Prophet
(pbuh) continued to meet his friends secretly in a house near the hill of
Safa. There they prayed together and he taught them about the religion of
Islam. But even though they kept to themselves, they were sometimes
abused by those who would not believe. From one such incident,
however, an unexpected conversion to Islam took place. One day, when
the Prophet (pbuh) was returning home, speaking with his followers, he
met Abu Jahl, a leader of Quraysh, who hated the Prophet (pbuh) and his
teachings. Abu Jahl started to insult him and to speak spitefully of Islam,
but the Prophet (pbuh) made no reply and went on his way.
This loud call was the final degree of communication. The Prophet (PBUH) severed relations with his people an account of his call. He explained to those who were closest to himself that belief in the message is what would keep alive the relationship between him and them and that the blood kinship which the Arabs upheld had melted in the heat of this warning coming from Allah.
Quraish continued moving along their path of obstinacy and avoidance of truth. Likewise Muhammed (PBUH) continued moving along his path, calling them to Allah, being gentle in his presentation of Islam, exposing the disgraces of paganism, listening and answering, attacking and defending.

Later, Hamzah, one of the Prophet’s uncles, who was a strong and
brave warrior of whom people were quite afraid, heard how his nephew
had been insulted. Filled with rage, he ran straight to the Ka’bah where
Abu Jahl was sitting among the people and struck him a violent blow in
the face with his bow. Hamzah then shouted, ’Will you insult him when I
follow his religion, and I say what he says? Hit me back if you can!’
Some people got up to help Abu Jahl but he stopped them saying, ’Leave
Hamzah alone, for by Allah, I have insulted his nephew badly. ’From that
moment on Hamzah followed the teachings of the Prophet (pbuh) and
with his conversion to Islam Quraysh realized that the Prophet (pbuh) had
a strong supporter and so for a while they stopped persecuting him. Soon,
however, the leaders of Quraysh became angry again, when they saw that
the Prophet (pbuh) was going ahead with his teaching.


 A group of them went to his uncle, Abu Talib, who had promised to protect him. They told him to ask the Prophet (pbuh) to stop attacking their gods and their way of life, and in return they would let him do as he wished with his religion.

After a time they saw that there was no change, so they went back to
Abu Talib and this time they told him that if he did not stop his nephew,
they would fight them both. Abu Talib was very upset by this quarrel
among his people, but he could not break his word to his nephew. He sent
for the Prophet (pbuh) and told him what had happened, saying, ’Spare
me and spare yourself; do not put a greater burden on me than I can bear.’
The Prophet (pbuh) thought that his uncle might abandon him and that he
would no longer have his support, but nevertheless he answered, ’0 my
uncle, by Allah, if they put the sun in my right hand and the moon in my
left in return for my giving up this cause, I would not give it up until
Allah makes Truth victorious, or I die in His service. Abu Talib was
deeply moved by this answer. He told the Prophet (pbuh) that he would
support him for as long as he lived and encouraged him to go on
spreading Allah’s message. From that time on, however hard the leaders
of Quraysh tried to convince Abu Talib to stop protecting his nephew, he
always refused to listen to them. In order to get rid of the Prophet (pbuh)
and his followers, his enemies started persecuting those Muslims who
were poor or weak, or had no powerful friends. One such person was
Bilal, the slave of Umayyah ibn Khalaf. His master would take him out
into the desert, tie him up, and leave him in the sun with a large stone on
his chest. Fortunately Abu Bakr was passing by one day and saw
Umayyah torturing Bilal, so he bought him from his master for a large
sum of money and then set him free. But not all persecuted Muslims were
as fortunate as Bilal. Many suffered, but all of them endured it patiently,
knowing that they were doing the right thing and that their reward in the
life to come would be greater’ than any happiness they could find on
earth.




Dated, January, 3rd 2014
                                              Sirrat of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

Main Points:
1-Muslims face hardships

Prophet Muhammed (PBUH) had to continue preaching and overcoming all the obstacles that were placed in his way , and those who belived in his message had to be firm and steadfast. Their steadfastness was not to be in their own interests alone, not even in fulfillment of the duties of faith, but also in the interests of the future generations. A skyscraper does not rest on the surface of the earth but on foundations which go deep into the earth, and these bear its weight and pillars. The early  Companions of the prophet (PBUH) with their strength of conviction and sincere loyalty were the pillars of his call and the roots which extended in later days in all directions of the globe.
The idolaters decided that they would spare no efforts to fight Islam and persecute those who entered it. This atmosphere filled with hatred was accompanied by a war of humiliation, the intent behind it being to demoralize the Muslims. The prophet (PBUH) and his companions were accused and abused, and a group was formed to carry out these campaigns against Islam and its followers. Muslims were caught in a tight spot their Prophet was being accused of madness.
This war turned into torture and bloodshed as far as the weak and oppressed believers were concerned. Those of them who had no clan to defend them could not be saved from humiliation and murder by anything. They were held and tortured painfully until they disbelieved, died or became unconscious.
Among them was Ammar Ibn Yasir, who was one of the earliest converts to Islam. He was a freed-slave of the Banu Makzzom. He his father and his mother accepted Islam, and they were dragged by the idolaters into the hot sands of Makkah in the blazing midday heat and there they were torture.
One day the prophet (PBUH) passed by them in this state and he said:"Patience, family of Yasir, for your rendezvous is Paradise. Yasir died of the torture. His wife,Sumayyah, shouted curses at Abu Jahl; he stuck a spear into her heart and she died. She was the first female in Islam to be martyred.
They redoubled their torturing of 'Ammar, sometimes by heat and at other times by placing a stone on his chest or by ducking him underwater and saying:" We shall not let you go until you curse Muhammed or say something good abou Al Lat and Al Uzza. Eventually he did and so they let him go. He came to the prophet (PBUH), weeping, and the Prophet( PBUH) asked him what was the matter. He replied by explaining by explaining what had happened.
Then the Prophet (PBUH) asked:" How do you find your heart?"
He replied:"I find it content with faith"
The prophet (PBUH) then advised him:" O Ammar, if they do it again then do the same as before."Thereafter Allah revealed:" Save him who is forced into it and whose heart is still content with faith"(Quran 16:106).

Dated, January 10th , 2014
                                              Sirrat of Prophet Muhammad (PBUH)

Main Points:
1-Negotiations between Quriash and the Prophet (PBUH)
2-Muslims' immigration to Abysinia.

The idolaters thought that their harsh treatment towards the weak Muslims would prevent others from responding to the caller. The hopes of them were doomed to disappointment, however. In fact the Muslims were on the increase. Quarish sought to employ another strategy, which contained both allurement and threat. They sent to Muhammad (PBUH) offering him any wordly thing that he desired, and they sent to his uncle, who was protecting him, warning him of the consequences of maintaining such protection and urging him to silence Muhammed (PBUH) so as not to cause any harm of himself and his family.
Quraish sent 'Utbah ibn Rabi'ah' was a calm and composed man. He went to the prophet (PBUH) and said:
When he finished, the prophet (PBUH) recited to him the opening verses of Surat Al Sajdah:






  
As the number of the Prophet’s followers increased so the enemies of the
Muslims grew more and more angry. At last some of the Muslims
decided to go to another country in order to live in peace. It was only five
years since the Archangel Gabriel had first come to the Prophet (pbuh)
and two years since the Prophet (pbuh) had spoken out in public. The
Muslims asked the Prophet (pbuh) to allow them to leave Mecca. He
agreed, saying ’It would be better for you to go to Abyssinia. The king
there is a just man and it is a friendly country. Stay there until Allah
makes it possible for you to return. The Muslims prepared for the
journey. They decided to wait until night so that they could leave without
being seen. The first sixteen left Mecca and, after reaching the shore of
die Red Sea, crossed over to Abyssinia. Another eighty-three men and
nineteen women followed, all hoping to be welcomed by the king and
people of that country. This was the first hijrah, or migration, in Islam.
The Meccans were furious when they discovered that these Muslims
had secretly left the city for among them were the sons and daughters of
many of the leading families of Mecca. The anger of the Meccans was
even greater when they found out that the Muslims had been warmly
welcomed in Abyssinia. The leaders of Quraysh decided to send two men
to the Abyssinian king in hopes of persuading him to send the Muslims
back. These were ’Amr ibn al-’As, a very clever speaker, and .Abd Allah
ibn abi Rabi.ah. Before they met this king, they gave each of his advisers
a gift, saying: ’Some foolish men from our people have come to hide in
your country. Our leaders have sent us to your ruler to persuade him to
send them back, so when we speak to the king about them, do advise him
to give them up to us.’ The advisers agreed to do what the Meccans
wished.
Amr ibn al-’As and ’Abd Allah ibn abi Rabi’ah then went to the king
and presented him also with a gift, saying: ’Your Highness, these people
have abandoned the religion we have always followed in Mecca, but they
have not even become Christians like you.’ The royal advisers, who were
also present, told the king that the Meccans had spoken the truth and that
he should send the Muslims back to their own people. At this, the king
became angry and said, ’No, by God, I will not give them up. Those who
have come to ask for my protection, settled in my country, and chosen me
rather than others, shall not be betrayed. I will summon them and ask
them about what these two men have said. If the Muslims are as the
Meccans say, I will give them up and send them back to their own people,
but if the Meccans have lied I will protect the Muslims.’ ’Amr was very
upset by this for the last thing he wanted was for the king to hear what the
Muslims had to say. The king then sent for the Muslims. When they
entered, they did not kneel before him as was the custom of the
Abyssinians. ’Why do you not kneel before our king?’ they were asked by
one of the advisors. ’We kneel only to Allah’, they replied. So the king
asked them to tell him about their religion.
Ja’far ibn abi Talib, Ali’s brother and a cousin of the Prophet (pbuh),
was chosen to speak for the Muslims. He replied, ’0 King, at first we were
among the ignorant. We and our ancestors had turned from the faith of
Abraham, who, with Ishmael, rebuilt the Ka.bah and worshipped only
Allah. We used idols in our worship of Allah; we ate meat that had not
been killed in the right way; we did not respect the rights of our
neighbors; the strong took advantage of the weak. We did terrible things
of which I dare not speak. This was our life until Allah sent a Messenger
from among us, one of our relatives, whom we have always known to be
honest, innocent, and faithful. He asked us to worship only Allah, and to
give up the bad customs of our forefathers. He asked us to be truthful and
trustworthy, to respect and help our neighbors, to honor our families, and
to put a stop to our bad deeds and endless fighting. He asked us to look
after orphans. He ordered us not to slander or speak evil of women or
men.
He ordered us to worship Allah alone and not to worship anyone or
anything else alongside Him. He ordered us to pray, to give alms, and to
fast. We believe he is right and therefore we follow him and do as he has
commanded us.
The Meccans began to attack us and come between us and our
religion. So we had to leave our homes and we have come to you, hoping
to find justice.’
The king, who was a Christian, was moved by these words. .Amr had
to think quickly of a way to win the argument. Cunningly he said to the
king, ’These people do not believe in Jesus in the same way as you’. The
king then wanted to know what the Prophet (pbuh) had said about Jesus.
Ja’far replied by reciting a Surah from the Qur’an which tells the story of
Jesus and his mother Mary. These are a few of the lines he recited:

In the Name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
.And make mention of Mary in the Scripture, when she had
Withdrawn from her people to an eastern place, And had chosen
seclusion from them. Then We sent unto her Our spirit and it assumed for
her the likeness of a perfect man. She said: Lo! I seek refuge in the
Beneficent One from thee, if Thou fearest God. He said: I am only a
messenger of thy Lord, that I may bestow on thee a faultless son. She
said: How can I have a son when no mortal hath touched me, neither have
I been unchaste? He said: ’Even so thy Lord saith: It is easy for Me. And
(it will be) that We may make of him revelation for mankind and a mercy
from Us, and it is a thing ordained. And she conceived him, and she
withdrew with him to a far place. Then she brought him to her own folk,
carrying him. They said: O Mary! Thou hast come with an monstrous
thing. Oh sister of Aaron! Thy father was not a wicked man nor was thy
mother a harlot. Then Mary pointed to the child (Jesus); But they said,
’How can we speak to one who is still in the cradle, a young child?’ He
said, ’Lo, I am Allah’s servant; He has given me the Book, and made me a
Prophet.
He has made me Blessed, wheresoever I may be; and He has enjoined
me to pray, and to give alms, so long as I live, and likewise to cherish my
mother; he has not made me arrogant, unblest Peace be upon me, the day
I was born, and the day I die, and the day I am raised up alive!. (Qur’an
19:16-33) . When the king heard this, his eyes filled with tears. Turning
to his advisers, he said, ’These words have surely come from God; there is
very little to separate the Muslims from the Christians. What both Jesus
and Muhammad, the Messengers of Allah, have brought comes from the
same source.
So the Muslims were given the king’s permission to live peacefully in
his country. ’Amr was given back the gift he had presented to the king
and the two Meccans returned home, bitterly disappointed.
 


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